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By H Lee Willis; Randall R Schrieber; Gregory V Welch

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It examines the natural phenomena that shape T&D systems and explains the key physical relationships and their impact on design and performance. For this reason experienced planners are advised to scan this chapter, or at least its conclusions, so they understand the perspective upon which the rest of the book builds. In a traditional electric system, power production is concentrated at only a few large, usually isolated, power stations. The T&D system moves the power from those often-distant generating plants to the many consumers who consume the power.

Copyright © 2001 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 22 Chapter 1 • An oil-filled UG cable's pumps are disabled and the cable has been de-rated. • A bus ground that failed tests has dictated opening a tiebreaker to balance fault duties. These and other similar problems impact an area of the system with obsolete system layout or an area of the system operating at high utilization ratios, far more than they impact a traditional (66% - 70% utilization) power system. , and limitations in its full equipment usage due to such partial failures adds stress and often "uses up" contingency capability.

However, as will be discussed in Chapter 9, this fell far short of providing traditional levels of reliability. N-l is not sufficient to assure traditional levels of reliability, when the system is operated at high utilization rates. Basically the reasons are that such systems are much more likely to experience "high stress events" to the point that situations that go beyond the N-l backup capability and are far more likely to occur. Such systems may have from three to five times the potential for customer service quality problems as traditional systems.

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